1.
In a slow year, Deutsche Burgers will produce 3.8 million hamburgers at a total cost of $5.4 million. In a good year, it can produce 5.8 million hamburgers at a total cost of $6.5 million. 
a. 
What are the fixed costs of hamburger production? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Enter your answer in millions rounded to 1 decimal place.) 
b. 
What is the variable cost per hamburger? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to 2 decimal places.) 
Variable cost 
$ per burger 
c. 
What is the average cost per burger when the firm produces 3 million hamburgers? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to 2 decimal places.) 
Average cost 
$ per burger 
d. 
What is the average cost per burger when the firm produces 4 million hamburgers? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to 2 decimal places.) 
Average cost 
$ per burger 
e. 
Why is the average cost lower when more burgers are produced? 




The fixed costs are spread across more burgers. 

Fixed costs are constant per burger. 

Variable costs are lower per burger. 

2.
A project currently generates sales of $16 million, variable costs equal 50% of sales, and fixed costs are $3.2 million. The firm’s tax rate is 40%. Assume all sales and expenses are cash items. 
a. 
What are the effects on cash flow, if sales increase from $16 million to $17.6 million? (Input the amount as positive value. Enter your answer in dollars not in millions.) 
b. 
What are the effects on cash flow, if variable costs increase to 60% of sales? (Input the amount as positive value. Enter your answer in dollars not in millions.) 
3.
Finefodder’s analysts have come up with the following revised estimates for the Gravenstein store: 

Range 


Pessimistic 

Expected 

Optimistic 

Investment 
$ 
4,800,000 


$ 
4,740,000 


$ 
4,620,000 


Sales 

13,000,000 



21,000,000 



25,000,000 


Variable costs as % of sales 

73 



72 



70 


Fixed cost 
$ 
2,400,000 


$ 
2,300,000 


$ 
2,100,000 



Assume the project life is 12 years, the tax rate is 40%, the discount rate is 8%, and the depreciation method is straightline over the project’s life. Conduct a sensitivity analysis for each variable and range and compute the NPV for each. (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answers to the nearest whole dollar amount. Negative amounts should be indicated by a minus sign. Enter your answers in dollars, not in millions.) 

NPV of Gravenstein Store 

Pessimistic 
Expected 
Optimistic 
Investment 
$ 
$ 
$ 
Sales 
$ 
$ 
$ 
Variable costs as % of sales 
$ 
$ 
$ 
Fixed cost 
$ 
$ 
$ 
4.
The following estimates have been prepared for a project: 
Fixed costs: $27,000 
Depreciation: $18,000 
Sales price per unit: $3 
Accounting breakeven: 20,000 units 

What must be the variable cost per unit? (Round your answer to 2 decimal places.) 
5.
Dime a Dozen Diamonds makes synthetic diamonds by treating carbon. Each diamond can be sold for $100. The materials cost for a standard diamond is $40. The fixed costs incurred each year for factory upkeep and administrative expenses are $219,000. The machinery costs $1.5 million and is depreciated straightline over 10 years to a salvage value of zero. 
a. 
What is the accounting breakeven level of sales in terms of number of diamonds sold? (Do not round intermediate calculations.) 
Breakeven sales 
diamonds per year 
b. 
What is the NPV breakeven level of diamonds sold per year assuming a tax rate of 40%, a 10year project life, and a discount rate of 14%? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to the nearest whole number.) 
Breakeven sales 
diamonds per year 
6,
You are evaluating a project that will require an investment of $17 million that will be depreciated over a period of 18 years. You are concerned that the corporate tax rate will increase during the life of the project. 
a. 
Would this increase the accounting breakeven point? 




b. 
Would it increase the NPV breakeven point? 




7.
Modern Artifacts can produce keepsakes that will be sold for $60 each. Nondepreciation fixed costs are $2,000 per year, and variable costs are $30 per unit. The initial investment of $5,000 will be depreciated straightline over its useful life of 5 years to a final value of zero, and the discount rate is 12%. 
a. 
What is the accounting breakeven level of sales if the firm pays no taxes? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to the nearest whole number.) 
Acounting breakeven level of sales 
units 
b. 
What is the NPV breakeven level of sales if the firm pays no taxes? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to the nearest whole number.) 
NPV breakeven level of sales 
units 
c. 
What is the accounting breakeven level of sales if the firm’s tax rate is 40%? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to the nearest whole number.) 
Acounting breakeven level of sales 
units 
d. 
What is the NPV breakeven level of sales if the firm’s tax rate is 40%? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to the nearest whole number.) 
NPV breakeven level of sales 
units 
8.
You estimate that your cattle farm will generate $.40 million of profits on sales of $8 million under normal economic conditions and that the degree of operating leverage is 2. (Leave no cells blank – be certain to enter “0” wherever required. Do not round intermediate calculations. Enter your answers in millions rounded to 1 decimal place.) 
a. 
What will profits be if sales turn out to be $3.3 million? 
Profit will 
to 
$ million. 
b. 
What if they are $12.0 million? 
Profit will 
to 
$ million. 
9.
Modern Artifacts can produce keepsakes that will be sold for $50 each. Nondepreciation fixed costs are $700 per year, and variable costs are $40 per unit. The initial investment of $2,100 will be depreciated straightline over its useful life of 3 years to a final value of zero, and the discount rate is 16%. 
a. 
What is the degree of operating leverage of Modern Artifacts when sales are $7,750? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to 2 decimal places.) 
Degree of operating leverage 

b. 
What is the degree of operating leverage when sales are $13,500? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to 2 decimal places.) 
Degree of operating leverage 

c. 
Why is operating leverage different at these two levels of sales? 
Degree of operating leverage is when profits are . 
10.
A silver mine can yield 15,000 ounces of silver at a variable cost of $36 per ounce. The fixed costs of operating the mine are $45,000 per year. In half the years, silver can be sold for $52 per ounce; in the other years, silver can be sold for only $26 per ounce. Ignore taxes. 
a. 
What is the average cash flow you will receive from the mine if it is always kept in operation and the silver always is sold in the year it is mined? (Do not round intermediate calculations.) 
b. 
Now suppose you can shut down the mine in years of low silver prices. Calculate the average cash flow from the mine. Assume fixed costs are incurred only if the mine is operating. (Do not round intermediate calculations.) 
11.
An auto plant that costs $130 million to build can produce a line of flexfuel cars that will produce cash flows with a present value of $190 million if the line is successful but only $50 million if it is unsuccessful. You believe that the probability of success is only about 50%. You will learn whether the line is successful immediately after building the plant. 
a1. 
Calculate the expected NPV. (Do not round intermediate calculations. A negative amount should be indicated by a minus sign. Enter your answer in millions rounded to 1 decimal place.) 
a2. 
Would you build the plant? 




Suppose that the plant can be sold for $125 million to another automaker if the auto line is not successful. 
b1. 
Calculate the expected NPV. (Do not round intermediate calculations. A negative amount should be indicated by a minus sign. Enter your answer in millions rounded to 2 decimal places.) 
b2. 
Would you build the plant? 




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