Synthesis Paper – Neo-Freudianism


The ramifications of mid-life theories are used to debunk myths and common assertions that typically denote a time of crisis and emotional instability, doubt, stress, loss and anxiety.

Weaver’s study employs a wealth of theories, ranging from Jungian, Freudian, Neo-Freudian, Existentialism, and others, to conclude how mid-life can represent new growth opportunities and new possibilities. Weaver dissects these beliefs by psychodynamic theorists who have argued that middle life is merely a product of childhood, and subsequently proposes that it could be indeed a stage in the individuals’ lifespan development, as linked to theories from Erikson and Peck. (Weaver, 2009).

Re-examining Mid-Life amid a Positive Perspective

In sum, the study is unique because it allows researchers to re-examine the mid-life conceptual framework amid a positive perspective, using notions offered by Erikson, Peck, Cohen, as well as a host of others. The study also embodies cultural implications since Weaver argues how many theories about meanings in life and midlife crises are culturally specific, not universal, and often merely rooted in Christian and Western ideologies. (Weaver, 2009). Likewise, Eagle’s article also offers a comprehensive synopsis of psychoanalysis critics, as well as an analysis of available criticisms, both inside and outside or within the psychoanalytic framework. Eagle strongly emphasizes that there are differences and diversity in psychoanalytic theory, in addition practices that are based not only on practical or experimental evidence effectively derive in information using a greater therapeutic mechanism but in widely physical developments and transformations in cultural, philosophical, and social–economic conditions. Eagle dismantles the notion that there is a widening scope for psychoanalytic treatments and even a wider potential “pool of patients.” (Eagle, 2007).

Furthermore, Weaver also contemplates the role of the analyst, as well as the role that

transference and self-disclosure plays in the discipline regarding the shifting of interpretations about therapeutic mechanisms with regards to overall psychoanalysis. In addition, there were other changes, such as the increasing emphasis on the therapeutic relationship and the reconceptualization of countertransference that were also discussed. (Weaver, 2009). Overskeid urges researchers to examine the similarities between Freud and Skinner, because differences between the two are more frequently covered. Overskeid also claims that Skinner was influenced by Freud and he traces connections between Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism in his article. The article uses historical and psychological findings and references to substantiate its claims. The commonality of both Freud and Skinner as positivists is also articulated as well as their zest for empirically driven research. (Overskeid, 2007).

Common Analysis of Consciousness and Civilization

Overskeid (2007). In regard to their common analysis of consciousness and civilization to

investigate aspects of language, human relationships, and the human condition, the author uncovers how Skinner and Freud provided a strong analysis with greater emphasis on the causes of behaviors that tend to be unconscious in nature. The writer claims that Skinner “in many ways echoed Freud’s description of primary and secondary processes in his description of rule-governed (conscious) and contingency-shaped (unconscious) behavior” as well as other Freudian Dynamisms. He wanted to illustrate that they both seemed to acknowledge the same causes behind dream symbols.

Hall and Lindzey (1957). The comprehensive article, “Social Psychological Theories: Adler, Fromm, Horney, and Sullivan,” offers many insights on how these theorists were major twentieth century pioneers who were instrumental in shaping social psychology as a theoretical framework. Adler is especially heralded as the first pioneer to break with Freud, but the writer commends Sullivan for offering a higher level of conceptualization and innovation. In brief, ample summaries and coverages are given to each theorist to offer a historical overview about their lives and major contributions to the field. There is also extensive inclusion of how each theorist conducted his or her research.

Scaturo (2005) highlights the vital roles among transference, countertransference, and resistance within psychotherapy and clearly defines each term as eminent psychotherapeutic concepts. These represent applicable psychoanalytic terminology within other theoretical orientations and disciplines according to the author. The author highlights how these dilemmas are important by explicitly assessing them in various contexts, such as the family physician’s office, a psychotherapist’s office, and other settings. The author utilizing in-depth case analyses of these examples to validate their argument. Therefore, the article is unique because of its practical crossovers. The writer further concludes how advances in psychotherapy integration may function as “a maturing force within the profession.”

Axelrod (2012) strongly argues that within the field of leadership development, there is a strong link between increased self-awareness and executive effectiveness. The shared similarities between executive consultation and psychoanalytic treatment are explored in this article and how they help to promote a greater understanding of self-awareness in action. This article has practical merits since it demonstrates how a psychoanalytic approach can cultivate coaching activities to increase executive self-awareness, emotional awareness, and guiding interventions. The article is accessible in its language and structure; it is also highly validated in its research scope as well. Clear definitions of key terms also greatly enrich this article.

Personal Facts and Coverage, beyond Theoretical and Professional Ideologies Personal facts and coverage, beyond theoretical and professional, are also unveiled in this article, such as Skinner’s loss of his Brother and Freudian defense mechanisms, like displacement and projection. The author helps researchers to further understand conflict and harmony that occurred among both men. Thus, the piece is essential to allow us to see how both psychologists influenced another.

Adler affixed symbolic interest toward the social determinants of behavior as well as his

concept of the creative self and the uniqueness of personality. Fromm stressed the condition of isolation, the desire for natural roots, and a solid frame of reference. The writer also divulges how Horney focused on the primary concept of basic anxiety, ten “neurotic” needs, and other major premises.

Sullivan induced a new viewpoint, which entailed the interpersonal theory of psychiatry, and this theory is praised in the article while being explained in reference to social psychology, and his theory of personality. His view of the structure of personality, dynamisms, personifications, and cognitive processes are also included, defined, and exemplified thoroughly in the article as well as his stages of development.


Overall, the articles are essentially vital in assessing some of the main contemporary features and developments included within the psychoanalytical framework including narrative truth, historical truth, knowledge of the internal world, and knowledge of the external world. In addition, it offers a unique perspective as the article debates whether a connection exists between attachment theory and research to psychoanalytic theory and practice. The authors examine the importance of each of the theorists while comparing and contrasting with Freud’s major assumptions. Consciousness as the center of personality was deeply linked to Adler’s main thoughts and key concepts with regards to fictional finalism, the strive for superiority, feelings of inferiority and compensation, social interest, style of life, and the creative self.


Axelrod, S. D. (2012). Self-awareness: At the interface of executive development and psychoanalytic therapy. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 32(4), 340-357. doi:10.1080/07351690.2011.609364

Cortina, M. (2016). Quo Vadis? The Future of Psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Review, 103(6), 793. doi:10.1521/prev.2016.103.6.793

Eagle, M. N. (2007). Psychoanalysis and its critics. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 24(1), 10-24. doi:10.1037/0736-9735.24.1.10

Hall, C. S., & Lindzey, G. (1957). Social psychological theories: Adler, fromm, horney, and sullivan. (pp. 114-156). Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc. doi:10.1037/10910-004. Retrieved from

Overskeid, G. (2007). Looking for skinner and finding freud. American Psychologist, 62(6), 590-595. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.6.590

Weaver, Y. (2009). Mid-life — A time of crisis or new possibilities? Existential Analysis: Journal of the Society for Existential Analysis, 20(1), 69-78. Retrieved from

0 replies

Leave a Reply

Want to join the discussion?
Feel free to contribute!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *